Linear and Non-Linear Causality

Sometimes we hear that everything happens for a reason. If something happens for no (apparent) reason, we call it chance. Things that happen for reasons are termed causal. The terms linear and non-linear causality are taken from mathematics, but one or the other applies to every system in the real world. A system, simply, is a group of parts assembled into a coherently functioning whole. The following table gives a breakdown of the two types of causality and where they apply.

 Linear Causality Non-Linear Causality Applies to: Mechanical systems Complex systems Characteristics: Whole is sum of parts Whole is more than sum of parts Reductionistic Non-reductionistic Deterministic Non-deterministic Predictable with certainty Only probabilistically predictable

Many (perhaps most) of us operate with a linear worldview that comes from our western scientific culture. Only recently has western science even formulated an approach to non-linear phenomena, though these make up the majority of what we experience. For this reason, most of us need to reassess our linear ways of seeing the world.

Newton’s laws of motion are laws of mechanics that are universally true—they work every time, everywhere. For every action, there will always be an equal and opposite reaction. Let’s say you have a system of a canoe, a pond, a paddle, and you. If you vary the force or direction of your stroke, the path and velocity of the canoe will vary predictably.

Such a system is also reducible. If three components remain constant, but one is changed, the change in the action/reaction will be due to the nature of the change that was made. Substitute a weaker or strong paddler, and the canoe will go slower or faster. Substitute a stick for a paddle and the canoe will hardly move at all. Substitute a rock for the canoe, and good luck! And so forth. Reductionism means that the behavior of the whole can be explained by the qualities and characteristics of the parts. That’s mostly how science works. We explain wholes by studying parts intensively.

But complex systems are non-reductionistic, because the properties of the whole are greater (and different) than the sum of the properties of the parts. If memories were linear phenomena, bits of memory would be stored in this or that neuron. Instead, memories reside in the patterns of interactions amongst neurons (and not necessarily the same neurons), rather than in the neurons per se.

In linear systems, causality is determined. If you apply this amount of force in this direction to an object of this mass, that (and only that) will happen. But, in non-linear systems, behavior is non-deterministic. You have a pretty good idea of what will happen, but then again it may not. When things are deterministic, they are predictable, because they have to happen in a certain way, given the state of the components of the system and the manner of their interaction.

But non-deterministic systems can happen in a number of different ways, and the reasons for this behavior can’t be captured by a reductionistic analysis of the component parts. Therefore the behavior of these systems can only be probabilistically predicted. Consider memory again. Have you ever studied very, very hard for a test and completely blanked when you got there? It’s hard to predict just what you will or won’t remember, or how well. Studying hard generally helps, but sometimes you remember the quirkiest things without even trying . . . and vice versa.

So, the next time somebody says that everything happens for a reason, you can answer, “Yeah, in a mechanical system that follows laws of linear causality.” For the rest of life, things still happen for reasons (usually many more than one), but in a non-linear fashion.

In a linear world, judges could be replaced with sentencing guidelines. A non-linear world is like a courtroom with a judge. The judge’s decision can’t be reduced to an algorithm—each case is different and there are so many factors, often of unknown weight. Experience suggests that, in the more complex (and interesting) world we live in, justice is better served by using judges.

If life were linear, how to live it would be mathematically soluble (at least given enough time, computing power, and knowledge of initial conditions). But it’s mostly not. So it behooves us to become acquainted with the non-linear—but inherently lawful—realities of the world of complex systems.

Why Worldview?

(And why it’s okay that you didn’t know you had one.) You’ve heard the expression about someone seeing the world through rose-colored glasses. Well, we all see the world through our own particular lenses—of which we’re generally unaware. How are these lenses crafted? By our interactions with and experiences of the world and of others. By what we’re told and taught and what we read, listen to, or view. By our own digestion of all the above, which takes place where our personalities meet the things that impact and influence us.

So why is worldview important? Simply put, how you deal with the world depends on how you see it. Your worldview shapes your view of right and wrong, good and bad, possible and impossible, desirable or undesirable, worthwhile or worthless. So your own sense of purpose, happiness, and fulfillment arise within the context of your worldview, as does the way you treat others and your environment.

Worldviews may be more or less rigid but they’re not static. They evolve as you (and your experiences) change. Nonetheless, your worldview may contain numerous facets that have passed their “use by” date. Since worldviews tend to be implicit and unquestioned, they can be full of leftovers from times gone by—which might have made sense given your stage of development then, but not so much now.

This course is an opportunity to examine what’s actually in there—what kind of glasses you wear. It’s also an opportunity to consciously question, assess, and—if it seems right—to alter the nature of that lens. In this way you can lay firm foundations on which to build your life (knowing that the edifice you construct will be the work of a lifetime).